Elle avait fondé les «Caravanes civiques» fin 1990 et le collectif "Femmes, familles, enfants". Mary Jo Lakeland, 2nd ed. That spirit of hope is what her overall work has been about, hope rooted in the bright past, in memory, in crossing borders, and in spiritual nomadism. “In western culture, sexual inequality is based on belief in women’s biological inferiority. She challenged herself, and her tradition, to embrace a larger human self. Her dissertation became her first book, “Beyond the Veil.”. 2. 1, vol. They give me evidence to feel proud of my Muslim past, and to feel justified in valuing the best gifts of modern civilization: human rights and the satisfaction of full citizenship.”[14] (4) Nouzha Guessous, « Le(s) féminisme(s) de Fatéma Mernissi », in Economia HEM Reseach Center, p. 2, consulté le 28 septembre 2018 (5) Amal Rassam and Lisa Worthington, « Mernissi Fatima … Féminisme. That reading, she argued, sprang from centuries of misinterpretation by male leaders intent on maintaining the sexual status quo. We Muslim women can walk into the modern world with pride, knowing that the quest for dignity, democracy, and human rights, for full participation in the political and social affairs of our country, stems from no imported Western values, but is a true part of the Muslim tradition. “But if there is one thing that the women and men of the late 20th century who have an awareness and enjoyment of history can be sure of, it is that Islam was not sent from heaven to foster egotism and mediocrity.”, Fatema Mernissi, a Founder of Islamic Feminism, Dies at 75, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/10/world/middleeast/fatema-mernissi-a-founder-of-islamic-feminism-dies-at-75.html. Abstract This paper seeks to evaluate missiological approaches to Muslim women in the light of the analysis of Moroccan Islamic feminist, Fatima Mernissi. can be perceived as a strategy for containing her power…While the women’s liberation in the West focuses on the woman and her claim for equality with men, in Muslim countries it would tend to focus on the mode of relatedness between the sexes and thus would probably be led by men and women alike.”[5] Macron prolonge le confinement jusqu’au 11 mai 14 avril 2020. Professor Mernissi came to venerate her as a feminist heroine and in 2001 published “Scheherazade Goes West: Different Cultures, Different Harems,” a book-length study of her influence. Son sourire et sa joie de vivre qu’elle a maintenus jusqu’à son dernier souffle, resteront gravés dans les esprits de tous ceux qui ont connu cette femme d’exception. In the preface to the book, she says, “Paradoxically, and contrary to what is commonly assumed, Islam does not advance the thesis of women’s inherent inferiority. Dans la discrétion et sans éclats, Fatima Mernissi s’est éteinte le 30 novembre 2015 à l’âge de 75 ans après une longue maladie qu’elle a affrontée avec dignité. Sociologue, son travail s’est concentré sur la réconciliation de l’Islam avec l’égalité Homme-Femme. 35) , pages 154 à 155 She accuses those Muslims who Westernize liberation and egalitarian claims for the sake of opposing them, or externalizing them, or for the sake of modernizing the tradition from without, she accuses them of ignorance of the tradition and their past. “Not only have the sacred texts always been manipulated, but manipulation of them is a structural characteristic of the practice of power in Muslim societies,” Professor Mernissi wrote in “The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women’s Rights in Islam” (1991, translated by Ms. Lakeland). Mernissi received tough criticism on that from the conservative elite in her early career. This short tribute is from an indirect student to a great scholar. 7, no. Because of the politically charged nature of her work, Professor Mernissi sometimes found her public lectures interrupted by protests from Islamic fundamentalists. That is what she narrates, among others, in Scheherazade Goes West: Different Cultures, Different Harems (2001). Intégrant une vision sociologique contemporaine et une vision historique des rapports hommes femmes dans les sociétés musulmanes, Fatéma Mernissi est progressivement sortie de l’approche du féminisme historique occidental pour adopter une approche théologico-idéologique à la manière dudit féminisme islamique, puis une approche économico-politique de recherche action avec et More than that, she sees it as a politicized symbol. En parallèle de sa carrière universitaire et littéraire, toujours nourrie pas lenvie de défendre la place des femmes musulmanes, Fatima Mernissi mène un combat pour le féminisme dans la société civile en fondant en 1981 le collectif « Femmes, familles, enfants ». “If I only could go for a walk in the early morning when the streets are deserted. Throughout her work, Professor Mernissi, who favored a moderate, inclusive Islam, emphasized that her deep study of religious texts had turned up little support for women’s long subordination. Fatema Mernissi, a Moroccan sociologist who was one of the founders of Islamic feminism, whose work included studies of the sexual politics of Islamic Scripture and a book based on her childhood in a domestic harem, died on Nov. 30 in Rabat. Later, with more sociological and theological studies, she would clarify her views based on the tradition itself to unveil the patriarchal and cultural additions that have burdened the Muslim message and the perception of man and woman. To honour the message of the Quran, the ontological equality described therein has to be emphasised and reclaimed for social and individual wellbeing, “The democratic glorification of the human individual, regardless of sex, race or status, is the kernel of the Muslim message.”[10] Mernissi’s hope was known to the people around her, to her students that are now scholars and have high esteem of her encouraging spirit, and to activists defending family and women in Muslim societies and communities worldwide - like the international Musawah movement, founded in February 2009 and headquartered in Malaysia, and whose workshop in Rabat just few days ago Mernissi could not attend for health problems. [10]Mernissi, Beyond the Veil, xvi Where the East subordinated women by controlling space, Professor Mernissi argued, the West created a vast de facto harem by controlling time. Through his harem, a man maintained his honor by preserving his wives and daughters from the eyes of male outsiders. “I would wake up at dawn,” Professor Mernissi recalled her mother saying. Mernissi’s point that Muslim males may be among the advocates of gender equality stems from her familiarity with the Islamic tradition and its scholarship that dedicate(d) space to women rights and duties. I know now how to handle them. She dreams of reclaiming the “second message of Islam,” which is that of equality and justice. Mernissi crossed borders to understand. (New York: Perseus Books Group and Basic Books, 2002) 32. The most — or, more accurately, the least — visible manifestation of such control was the domestic harem. Elle étudie dans l’une des première écoles privées du Maroc et poursuit un cursus de lettres dans son pays. Feminisme - Fatima Mernissi.afpk: 29-Oct-2019 17:33 Fatima Mernissi. She belonged to a generation that still attended a national, not a French school. From Libération. These dreams are translated in twenty-five languages, to give the harem a different connotation. She is very critical of the authority of some Prophetic narrated hadiths, and questions their validity in comparison with the Islamic message which she considers to have given full ontological equality of man and woman. [2] The medieval spiritual city of Fez and its family harem of the 1940s was a closed tradition, it appears from outside, but open to historical narratives and intellectual nomadism of various female voices that bring their dreams to the world outside. [3] Nor did she exempt the West from criticism on matters of sexual politics. Fatima Mernissi. Mernissi produced ground-breaking scholarship, written in a vibrant voice. Catégories . An Nisa´a, vol. Professor Mernissi, it added, “is the most highly regarded among them.”. The West had its own version of the harem, at the core of which is the ontological inferiority of woman. By putting the spotlight on the female child and framing her as the ideal of beauty, he condemns the mature woman to invisibility.”. The American scholar Amina Wadud has mourned her and called her “one of our greatest foreMothers.” Many see her as having given confidence to the idea of an Islamic feminism and its struggles for human dignity, equality, and social justice, at a time when Western feminism remained Eurocentrist, anti-religious, and not Third Worldist enough. Added to this is the fact that Mernissi now underlines the ontological equality the Quran speaks of, a strong basis on which to adjust legal rights on equality in Muslim majority societies nowadays. “At least in Morocco, you can’t be put into jail for writing something, unlike most of the other Arab countries,” she told The Toronto Globe and Mail in 1982. Contrairement aux affirmations des lecteurs hâtifs et des extrémistes, Fatima Mernissi n’a jamais été contre l’Islam. In Women's Rebellion and Islamic Memory (1996), she says that the veil has been politically and not morally imposed in the Arab world so as to divert the masses from raising the issues of democracy and freedom of participation in the socio-political arena. In The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women’s Rights in Islam (1987; 1991) she writes: Souad Mekkaoui - 2 mars 2018 . Fatima Mernissi, right, talks to Prince Felipe of Spain after having been awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize for Letters in 2003. [1] Mernissi had high hopes for change, the spirit of which she saw growing among the youth since the 1990s. Mernissi wanted to make sure that this was a mere patriarchal attitude and not an Islamic one. Berkaitan dengan tema yang sedang dan akan Feminisme - Fatima Mernissi.MP3: 29-Oct-2019 15:54: 17.9M: 150. Nourrie pas l’envie de défendre la place des femmes musulmanes dans le monde et au Maroc, Fatima Mernissi a laissé derrière elle une œuvre engagée sur l’islam, le féminisme et la modernité. Fatima Mernissi was born in 1940 in Fez, a Moroccan city steeped in tradition. After a lifetime spent exploring the relationship of Islam to feminism, Professor Mernissi concluded that there were few irreconcilable differences between the two. One of the primary ways in which this manipulation played out, Professor Mernissi argued, was in Islam’s time-honored control of the physical space that women are allowed to occupy. Développant son engagement dans la vie associative au Maroc, elle crée également les « caravanes civiques » pour faire le pont entre les populations rurales, urbaines et le monde de la culture. The legal rights that appear to inferiorize Muslim women in modern times were at a certain age and for centuries advanced rights. “Once you knew what was forbidden, you carried the harem within.” She added, “Ours in Fez was like a fortress.”. GERAKAN FEMINISME ISLAM DALAM PERSPEKTIF FATIMAH MERNISSI Oleh: Widyastini1 Abstract The purpose of this research is to know the women’s role in the scope of social life, nation and country. As a young child she attended nationalist schools, where she was educated alongside male classmates. On the contrary, the whole system is based on the assumption that the woman is a powerful and dangerous being. The Harem she describes may be a physical prison, but the women characters she describes within that prison are powerful, strong, and inspiring. Many, including Professor Mernissi’s mother, chafed openly. Photograph: Miguel Riopa/AFP G a y a t r i D e v i D. Tinjauan Pustaka Tinjauan pustaka merupakan salah satu usaha untuk mengkaji dan meneliti karya-karya terdahulu. Of this I am certain, after reading the works of those scholars mentioned above and many others. The cause was cancer, said her literary agent, Edite Kroll. Ngaji Filsafat: 150. [9] She does not need to, since her approach goes in that direction, to reclaim the “Rissala/ second message of Islam” and its defence of human dignity and social justice. Mernissi was my scholar-hero of Islamic feminism, gender equality and human dignity as seen from a female eye. Fatima Mernissi died November 30 at the age of 75 in Morocco. 13 avril 2020. The vast and inspiring records of Muslim history so brilliantly completed for us by scholars such as Ibn Hisham, Ibn Hajar, Ibn Sa´ad, and Tabari, speak to the contrary. This article first appeared on the website Resetdoc.org, Copyright © 2017 Muslim Institute. What is the color of the morning in the deserted, silent streets?”, Professor Mernissi added, “No one answered her questions.”. But for the most part — owing in no small measure to the careful phrasing and rigorous scholarly documentation of her writings — she was left alone. In Islam there is no such belief in female inferiority. They raised this fundamental question: “What is the purpose of our existence on earth, and to what use should we put ´aql (reason), that marvellous gift from heaven?”[7] For Mernissi, the Muʻtazila “forced Islam to imagine new relationships between ruler and ruled” in politics and daily life, based on dialectics, and their spirit exemplifies that of democracy and humanism. They sustained one another with stories, songs and, when they could spirit away the key to the radio cabinet, quiet news of the outside world. Its first edition was very anti the widespread un-egalitarian and misogynist interpretation of Islam. Fatima Mernissi Author: Claire Noon. Chronique littéraire : Fatima Mernissi et le féminisme islamique. Quite the contrary, it affirms the potential equality between the sexes.”[4] [8]Ibid., 32-33 [9]Raja Rhouni, Secular and Islamic Feminist Critiques in the Work of Fatima Mernissi (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010), 268. GERAKAN FEMINISME ISLAM DALAM PERSPEKTIF FATIMAH MERNISSI 1. Fatema Mernissi and Islamic Feminism By Nasrullah Mambrol on June 26, 2018 • ( 1) Islamic feminism has been a widely discussed phenomenon since the emergence of the term in 1990s, oftentimes subject to a heated debate. “Since all power, from the seventh century on, was only legitimated by religion, political forces and economic interests pushed for the fabrication of false traditions.”. It has become a classic on Arab-Muslim-and-Mediterranean socio-anthropologic work on women. So she will remain for the coming generations. This she narrates in the fascinating (quasi-autobiographical) novel Dreams of Trespass (1994). Nourrie pas l’envie de défendre la place des femmes musulmanes dans le monde et au Maroc, Fatima Mernissi a laissé derrière elle une œuvre engagée sur l’islam, le féminisme et la modernité. This long passage explains her point, which may appear simplistic for Western feminist scholars in particular: “If those fanatics from the Moslem Brothers show up and try to interrupt my talk, they must be thrown out. Mernissi’s first work Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Muslim Society was published in 1975; many revisited revisions followed since then. In her preface to the English translation of The Veil and the Male Elite (1991), Mernissi affirms that when she finished writing the book she had no doubts of ‘one thing’: “if women's rights are a problem for some modern Muslim men, it is neither because of the Koran nor the Prophet, nor the Islamic tradition, but simply because those rights conflict with the interests of a male elite.”[12] A stronger confirmation follows: “We Muslim women can walk into the modern world with pride, knowing that the quest for dignity, democracy, and human rights, for full participation in the political and social affairs of our country, stems from no imported Western values, but is a true part of the Muslim tradition.”[13]. “Muslim women are now producing the most exciting feminist writing being published anywhere,” The Guardian, the British newspaper, wrote in 1992. This explains some aspects of Western women’s liberation movements, such as that they are almost always led by women, that their effect is often very superficial, and that they have not succeeded in changing significantly the male-female dynamics in that culture. “A harem was about private space and the rules regulating it,” Professor Mernissi wrote. Comparatively, Mernissi had her say on Western feminism and its historical background, thus its present priorities and neglect of Islamic women liberation history and input. Especially popular among the women were tales of Scheherazade, the Arab queen of legend who used her verbal skill to pre-empt execution. memory and access to it, and to hide the feminine. The Mernissi harem comprised a set of secluded quarters within the family’s expansive home. [8]Ibid., 32-33 [9]Raja Rhouni, Secular and Islamic Feminist Critiques in the Work of Fatima Mernissi(Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010), 268. The former, in her reading, are labelled “rebel Islam” partisans, while the latter represent the “rationalist tradition.” The Muʻtazilites are described to have focalized the utility of reason on all matters that concern human affairs on earth. She also started a writing workshop for released Moroccan political prisoners. In 2003, Professor Mernissi, along with Susan Sontag, received the Prince of Asturias Award for Letters, presented by the government of Spain. Her other books include “Women in Moslem Paradise” (1986); “Doing Daily Battle: Interviews With Moroccan Women” (1988), based on her fieldwork in rural areas and translated by Ms. Lakeland; “The Forgotten Queens of Islam” (1993), also translated by Ms. Lakeland; and “Women’s Rebellion and Islamic Memory” (1996). If she dares to look 50, or worse, 60, she is beyond the pale. Mary Jo Lakeland, 2 nd ed. Feminisme - Fatima MernissiBersama Dr. Fahruddin Faizdi Masjid Jendral Sudirman Yogyakarta Le rapport de Fatima Mernissi au féminisme L’Introduction à la deuxième édition de Women in Moslem Paradise13 rédigée à Delhi en 1987 est l’un des textes où Fatema s’explique le plus longuement sur son rapport au féminisme. The book came after the Gulf War and the rise of debate of Islam and democracy, Islam and the West. Yasmina urges the little girl (Fatema) to travel, see the world and recognize God’s marvels outside, an inspiration she learnt from Sufis. Long active with North African social justice causes, Professor Mernissi helped found La Caravane Civique, an organization that took educated women to speak in rural communities, village schools and women’s prisons in the region. Name Last modified Size; Go to parent directory: 150. The veil is “intrinsically political.”[6] She later studied sociology and political science in Paris and the US, eventually becoming a professor of sociology in Rabat. Mernissi remained a nomad, an advice Yasmina gave her, in narrating to her a tale from Scheherazade of The Thousand and One Nights. 2, 2012, pp. Mernissi, Fatima This is a remarkably accessible book, for the western reader who is interested in understanding or beginning to understand the dynamics of modern Muslim society – it is written from within, but with the western reader in mind. Fatima Mernissi memberikan pengaruh dan kontribusi yang besar di berbagai wilayah belahan dunia, utamanya aktivis gerakan feminisme baik di dunia Barat maupun dunia Islam. “The Western man,” she wrote, “declares that in order to be beautiful, a woman must look 14 years old. Her quasi-real grandmother Yasmina that we find in her novels is a source of inspiration to her. This statement translates her optimism: “The Arab world is about to take off […]. She was a sociologist whose books include "Beyond The Veil" and "Islam And Democracy." She went into history to come out with a book entitled The Forgotten Queens of Islam (1993)[15] to support her argument of Muslim women past involvement in socio-political and economic affairs of their societies. Fatima Mernissi, la pasionaria du féminisme musulman. All Rights Reserved, Muslim Institute Annual Ibn Rushd Lecture. “Any man who believes that a Muslim woman who fights for her dignity and right to citizenship excludes herself necessarily from the umma and is a brainwashed victim of Western propaganda is a man who misunderstands his own religious heritage, his own cultural identity. Puis, après des études à la Sorbonne à Paris, elle part étudier la … Following years of fieldwork and experience of women aspirations in the Arab world she writes in Islam and Democracy (2002, originally written in French in 1992), that the Arabs have dared to do two things no other great civilization has done: to deny the past, i.e. They were instead, quite simply, sequestered multigenerational living quarters for the female members of an extended family. Fatima Mernissi menait en parallèle à sa carrière un combat pour le féminisme au sein de la société civile. Inside, the women dreamed of transgressing its confines. Professor Mernissi, who was divorced from the Ghanaian novelist Ayi Kwei Armah, is survived by a brother, Mohamed, and a sister, Ratida Mernissi. The women were rarely allowed to venture outside the house, and when they were, they did so — veiled — escorted by a male relative. Yunita, "Fatima Mernissi dan Simbol Perlawanan Terhadap Hadith-Hadith Misogini (Kajian Terhadap Pandangan Fatima Mernissi mengenai Hadith "Wanita, Anjing dan Keledai Membatakan Salat" riwayat Abu Hurairah)", dalam Jurnal Dialogia, no. (3) Margalit Fox, « Fatema Mernissi, a founder of Islamic Feminism, Dies at 75 », in The New York Times, Dec. 9, 2015. Peu connue du public Français Fatima Mernissi est pourtant l’une des principales figures du féminisme marocain. A longtime faculty member of Mohammed V University in Rabat, the capital, Professor Mernissi, who wrote in Arabic, French and English, published and lectured worldwide. 13, 2015, h. 16. The harem’s matriarch, her grandmother, had been one of her grandfather’s nine wives. Fatima Mernissi : L’icône du féminisme marocain. She was 75. Fatema Mernissi, center, in 1996 with, from left, Mahnaz Afkhami, Yasmeen Murshed and Deniz Kandiyoti. Fatima Mernissi, la pasionaria du féminisme musulman. Un parcours de sociologue entre Rabat et Paris Fatima Mernissi naît dans un harem à Fès en 1940, la faisant grandir au milieu de nombreuses femmes… It was into just such a harem that Fatema Mernissi was born on Sept. 27, 1940, in Fez, the daughter of a prosperous family. Though Professor Mernissi’s father, a monogamist, was a progressive in many respects, he favored the traditional segregation of the sexes that the harem provided. After the election of Benazir Bhutto as a Prime Minister in Pakistan in 1988, some Muslim conservative scholars objected to the fact that a woman leads a country. It is going to take off for the simple reason that everybody, with the fundamentalists in the lead, wants change.”[11] Elle anime des ateliers décriture avec des amate… [7]Mernissi, Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World, trans. Fatima Mernissi (1940-2015) : la lutte pour un féminisme sans tutelle Suivre cet auteur Dorra Mahfoudh Draoui Dans Nouvelles Questions Féministes 2016/2 (Vol. [8] Yet, Mernissi does not directly state that she is a neo-Muʻtazilite. Her best-known English-language books include “Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society,” which was first published in 1975 and is still considered a touchstone in the field; “Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World” (1992, translated by Mary Jo Lakeland); and “Dreams of Trespass: Tales of a Harem Girlhood” (1994), with photographs by Ruth V. Ward.That book, described by many reviewers as a memoir and by some as a novel, is a hybrid of both genres. 73-86. Unlike her mother and grandmother, who were uneducated, Professor Mernissi was a beneficiary of the nationalist fervor that had arisen in Morocco in the 1930s as the country sought to break free of French dominion. "Perempuan Di Hadapan Tuhan (Pemikiran Feminisme Fatima Mernissi)." The Christian perspective on women’s status and role in Islamic societies is essentially etic and mission thinkers have been criticised for Mernissi grew up in … [7]Mernissi, Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World, trans. Fatima Mernissi (DR) Avec sa caravane civique qui incite la population civile à lire, parler et penser, elle va pousser l’accès aux connaissances pour toutes. Fatema Mernissi, a Moroccan sociologist who was one of the founders of Islamic feminism, whose work included studies of the sexual politics of Islamic Scripture and a … (New York: Perseus Books Group and Basic Books, 2002) 32. “It is the Ottoman imperial harem that has fascinated the West almost to the point of obsession,” Professor Mernissi wrote in “Dreams of Trespass.” “By contrast,” she added, “domestic harems are rather dull, for they have a strong bourgeois dimension.”. Domestic harems, Professor Mernissi stressed, were nothing like the silk-hung dens of iniquity presided over by sultans and long popularized in Western film and literature. “If women’s rights are a problem for some modern Muslim men, it is neither because of the Quran nor the Prophet, nor the Islamic tradition, but simply because those rights conflict with the interests of a male elite,” she wrote in “The Veil and the Male Elite.”, “The elite faction is trying to convince us that their egotistic, highly subjective and mediocre view of culture and society has a sacred basis,” she added. Here, Mernissi attempts to situate the conflict in Islamic thought to the early history of the Kharijites and Muʻtazilites. Fatima Mernissi : pionnière du féminisme même dans ses funérailles [Vidéo] Par. On November 30, 2015, the Moroccan sociologist, writer and feminist Fatema Mernissi died in Rabat at age 75. Fatima Mernissi mena, en parallèle à sa carrière littéraire, un combat pour le féminisme dans la société civile : elle a fondé les « Caravanes civiques » où s’exprimaient toute la société civile désireuse de démocratie, ainsi que le collectif « Femmes, familles, enfants ». Professor Mernissi received a degree in sociology from Mohammed V University, did graduate work at the Sorbonne and earned a Ph.D. from Brandeis University. [10]Mernissi, Beyond the Veil, xvi Fatema Mernissi: The Pride of Islamic Feminism in Modern Times - Muslim Institute Obituary . The light must be blue then, or maybe pink, like at sunset. mengenai konsep-konsep feminisme Fatima Mernissi berdasarkan latar belakang kehidupan dan pengalaman-pengalamannya, serta melengkapi studi kepustakaan dalam bidang feminisme.